Technical education in the country has expanded significantly. There are 79 Central Government funded institutions along with State government funded and Self financing Institutions. These institutions, supported by the government, play an important role in the technical education system of the country.
Two apex level Councils, namely All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and Council of Architecture, as statutory bodies, and four Boards of Apprenticeship Training (BOATs) are established for promotion and coordination of technical education. The Councils grant approvals for starting new technical institutions and for introducing new courses or programmes in approved institutions. Approvals are accorded in consultation with respective state Governments and affiliating universities. The National Board of Accreditation (NBA) was set up in 1994 to award accreditation status to programmes.
Number of Centrally Funded Institutions of Technical and Science Education:
- Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) – 15 Nos
- Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) – 11 Nos
- Indian Institute of Science (IISc.) – 1 Nos
- Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) – 5 Nos
- National Institutes of Technology (NITs) – 30 Nos
- Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) – 20 Nos (proposed)
- National Institutes of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTRs) – 4 Nos
- Other institutes of technology including Schools of Planning & Architecture (SPAs -3) – 9 Nos
There are different tyrpe of universities and they can be grouped as follows:
- Universities/Institutions of National Importance created by Act of Parliament
- Central Universities
- Deemed-to-be-Universities (these institutions are recognized as Deemed¬to-be-Universities by UGC)
- Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT)
- Indian Institutes of Sdentific Education, and Research (115121)
- Indian Institutes of Management (NM) a Universities created by the Act of State Legislature
- State University
- Private University
Higher education covers post-secondary education (beyond class 12) with four levels of qualifications; Bachelors’„ Masters’, pre-doc Loral (M.Phil), and doctoral (PhD) (durations of Bachelors’ and Masters’ vary with disciplines where as MPhil is of 18 months and for PhD minimum work period is two years).
‘Engineering education became a main attraction after 1990 when India became a major contributor to the global IT industry revolution_ Presently, engineering
undergraduate degrees specializing in mechanical, electrical, civil, telecommunication, electronics,. information technology,. computer hardware, and software, are enormously popular with a tridents.
After the 1980s many state governments encouraged the idea of self-financed professional colleges where state government does not provide financial support but
facilitates the setting up of such institutions by providing Land and other infrastruc tural support at subsidized rates. This idea was well received by states in Southern and Western parts of India where four states (Tamil Nadu,. Karnataka,. Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra} have more than 50 percent of total engineering colleges in India.